Theories and Models of leadership and management
Leadership is a method of introducing organisation to its better circumstance and also induce it to change to the culture accordingly. Leadership defines strategy of the organisation and proceed with it notwithstanding the problems and ensure positive result. (John Kotter; 2004)
Management is the fixed of course which might have intricate type of people and knowledge even though runs smoothly. Management core features contains strategy, accounting, organising, monitoring and controlling, operating, and problem solving. (John Kotter; 2004)
David Livingston and Jenna Lusin’s theory of leadership is stirring and interesting. It comprises two theories of leadership. They are
- Complexity leadership theory
- Authentic leadership theory
Complexity theory of leadership is about the actions of leaders like multifaceted interacting, symbiotic and adaptive leaders under pressure (Marion, 2008: 3). And authentic leadership is about operative leaders who were possessed by the knowledge of how the leaders think and act and professed by others skills like ethical behaviour, awareness and powers. (Avolio, Luthans, & Walumbwa, 2004: 4, as Cited in Avolio Gardner et al., 2004).
Complexity leadership theory is also known as adaptive theory. It is about structure in which leaders induce organisation to adapt a culture according to the changing climate of culture (Uhl-Bien et al; 2007). Global business now focusses on innovative technology and practice which induces change in culture, so, adaptive leadership would be effective and leaders must use it in practice efficiently. And it also works on the basis that organisation success is based on human and capital resources. (Yukl, George, & Jones, 2010). A perfect example of authentic theory of leadership is Microsoft entering into china’s market. Bill gates spent more time on getting knowledge about their culture as a result he could easily adapt to the culture of Chinese and executed his strategy and successfully gained a certain percentage of shares in the Chinese market. (Hogan (2008), Glover, Friedman, and Jones; 2002)
Limitations of complexity theory
- Not easy in applicability in practice
- Lack of integration
- Fails to provide about leaders characters
- Lack of consideration about leadership skills
- Vague in demands from the leaders
Authentic leadership infers the company or person is unpretentious, candid, ethical and erect of character but also the leader is having the audacity to take a position or to imply new ideas. The main mechanisms of authentic leadership are self-awareness, self-regulation and self-development. It mainly focusses on the leader rather than capital and culture change on the assumption of those workers are in the interest and motivated to work. In the case of authentic leadership U.S companies is more that adopt this type of leadership as they are internally capitalised. Some of the successful leaders adopt adaptive leadership are Jeff Bezos at Amazon, Michael Dell of Dell, Bill Gates of Microsoft, Warren Buffett of Berkshire Hathaway, Andrew Grove (Intel), Frank Stronach (Magna International), Li Ka-Shing (Hutchison Whampoa), Narayana Murthy (Infosys), Stan Shih (Acer), and other people of that stature.
Limitations of Authentic leadership theory
- It focusses only on leader
- Vague information about skills
- Not concentrated on capital and other resource
- It is too ethical
In above, both the theories are limited to some extent. So to provide an effective leadership theory a new bridge called metaphor is built which authentic and complexity theory mixed to provide effective theory which also comprises less limitation.
In this complexity leadership can work without authentic leadership but the mechanisms of authentic leadership will provide helpful and will make it as an efficient theory of leadership. In this case authentic leadership will help in core feature of what it knows, how it will imply and how can develop with the three main mechanisms.
David Livingston and Jenna Lusin; Proceedings of the European Conference on Management, Leadership & Governance; 2009, p102-109.
Karin Klenke; Authentic Leadership: A Self, Leader, and Spiritual Identity Perspective available online from http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/ijls/new/vol3iss1/klenke/Klenke_IJLS_V3Is1.pdf